The Yellow-billed Spoonbill is a large, white waterbird with a yellow face and spatulate (spoon-shaped) bill. It also has yellow legs and feet. It mostly inhabits wetlands, where it is most often seen wading slowly in shallow waters, sweeping its bill from side to side to feed.
The Yellow-billed Spoonbill is a large, white waterbird with a yellow face and spatulate (spoon-shaped) bill, and yellow legs and feet. During breeding season, the facial skin is outlined in black, the lacy outer wing plumes are tipped black and there are long hackles on its upper breast. Out of breeding, the face is yellow with no black outline and the lacy plumes and hackles are reduced or absent. Young birds are similar to adults, but have black markings on the inner flight feathers (tertials).
Almost mute; some feeble grunting and also bill-clapping.
The Yellow-billed Spoonbill is found across Australia in suitable habitat, particularly in the north and well-watered inland areas, but is less common in coastal regions. It is a rare visitor to Tasmania and a vagrant to Lord Howe Island.
The Yellow-billed Spoonbill is found in the shallows of freshwater wetlands, dams, lagoons and swamps, and sometimes in dry pastures, but rarely uses saltwater wetlands. It can use much smaller areas of water than the Royal Spoonbill.
The unusual spatula-shaped bill of the Yellow-billed Spoonbill is a feeding adaption which allows the bird to specialise in foraging for invertebrates in deep, muddy water. Instead of searching for food by looking for it, the sensitive tip of the spoonbill’s bill allows the bird to feel for its food instead. The spoonbill walks through the water, sweeping its bill from side to side in a series of arcs or crescent-shaped movements, and when it detects a small creature it is quickly grabbed and swallowed.
The Yellow-billed Spoonbill feeds on aquatic insects and their larvae, using its bill to sweep shallow waters for prey. The spatulate bill has many vibration detectors, called papillae, on the inside of the spoon, which means the bird can feel for prey items even in murky water and can feed by day or night. Once food is caught, it lifts its bill up and lets the items slide down its throat. The Yellow-billed Spoonbill has less sensory papillae and a smaller spoon than the Royal Spoonbill, which means that it catches slower moving prey.
The Yellow-billed Spoonbill often nests in colonies with other water birds, such as ibises and Royal Spoonbills. It places its nest in high forks of trees over water, or in among reed beds, building a shallow, unlined platform of sticks, rushes and reeds. The male collects the nest materials while the female builds and both sexes share incubation and care of the young.